Bhagat Singh as a Surefooted Revolutionary and His Verdure: A Foster- son of Colonialism

What would be better to call Bhagat Singh a poet, historian, writer, philosopher, artist, poet, communist, socialist, Marxist or at the most a family man? A close study of Singh’s character and nature along with his letters throws light on his various shades. Yet, still, always confusion arises. What would be better to call him? Politician, states man, nationalist, national builder, patriot, freedom fighter, terrorist, revolutionary, administrator; list may be long. However, question here is which role was dominant in his life? Hence, in this paper an attempt is made to trace him as a man of multiple personalities. Another attempt is made to trace the favorable factors that nourished his growth as freedom fighter.  When delving through the letters written by him to different personalities, it is learnt that in the midst of various political issues and nationalist movements, he was struggling to take care of his family. It is learnt that he had a special affection towards Harnam Kaur, the wife of his exiled uncle Ajit Singh.   This attempt enables us to grapple with the existing shroud of mystery and confusion regarding the role of Singh as a family man. Therefore, the basic thrust is to explore his approach towards the nation and the British, through which it is possible to study how, a patriot, struggled between his family and the nation. The present study entails a detailed exploration of the Singh’s constructive and political activities in the Punjab. To understand him as a historian and a writer, an attempt is being made to separate fact from the mass of legend, which is interwoven with the slender matrix of history. It is hoped that the present exercise would fill the gaps in our knowledge of Singh’s multiple personalities under study. Thus, a humble attempt is made to move away from the conventional reconstructions of the past towards a more realistic and complex representation. It is hoped that the present study would help the readers to assume that how different he was from others.

Sheena Krishnan Ulamparambath, P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh

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SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY OF SAHEED BHAGAT SINGH

Bhagat Singh’s extra ordinary activities have made him “The Legend”.  He had given true definition of terror and differentiated terror and the self confidence. He have criticized the capitalism and suggested to aware the people to put an end to communalism. He had strongly opposed the evils system.  He was an Atheist and doesn’t believed in God’s existence even in his last days of lift. It is clear that Bhagat Singh at such an early age had developed his thinking scientifically. He had made the jail, Library and Laboratory through his reading and writings. His social philosophy given us a new way to think about the social problems as well as to solve them. Only the need is to understand and apply them accordingly. Bhagat Singh’s social ideas are still valuable and applicabele in the society.

Manju Chauhan, P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh

Karma as the main way in Gītā : Revisiting Tilak’s contribution to world Philosophy

The central stream of classically looking at The Gītā flows along the banks of Jñāna and Bhakti as initiated by the Advaitins and the Vainavas. Classical commentators have resorted to only one of the ways in interpreting the text. But Geeta also includes Karma as a way toward liberation along with Bhakti and Jñāna. Thus, in modern times, Bal Gangadhar Tilak came up with an interpretation based on the way of Karma. Tilak argues that in the cultural history of India, the period of Jñāna – Bhakti is a very small one. According to him, the Gītā, by and large, inspires a life of activity and engagement. Interpretation based only on Jñāna or Bhakti is not only partial but also misleading at times. There is no doubt that Tilak’s project of bringing Karma to centre was not only an eye-opener but also probably first of its kind in contemporary context. But the answer which I have tried to seek in my paper is – Can we read the Gītā having Karma as the main way and Bhakti and Jñāna as subservient, i.e. Jñānamulaka- bhaktipradhāna-karmayoga  instead of reading it as having Jñāna or Bhakti as the main way with the two others as subservient? Since on one hand, we have ślokas like 5.2 where Karma has been taken up as superior, there are ślokas like 4.38 where it is said that there is nothing greater than Jñāna. Apart from that, there are charges of promoting escapism on Gītā. In the second section, I have tried to evaluate Tilak’s answer to these charges and his contribution to Global Philosophy that he has made by connecting liberation, which has concerned philosophers across the globe in different ways, and action, which is a tool of evolution for every human being.

 

Shubhra Jyoti Das, PhD Scholar, Centre for Philosophy, JNU, New Delhi 110067

Matter and Spirit: A True Reconciliation of Sri Aurobindo

The cardinal principle of Sri Aurobindo’s integral advaitism is the affirmation of the reality of the world as well as of the Absolute, of Matter as well as of Spirit. This integral metaphysical exposition of Sri Aurobindo appears to us first time in his magnum opus, The Life Divine when he says, “The affirmation of divine life upon earth and an immortal sense in mortal existence can have no base unless we recognise not only eternal Spirit as the inhabitant of this bodily mansion, the wearer of this mutable robe, but accept Matter of which it is made, as a fit and noble material out of which He weaves constantly His garbs, builds recurrently the unending series of His mansions.” So, Sri Aurobindo’s outlook which is integral, explicates that, the Spirit or Brahman is One and that One is not completed without “All this is Brahman”-“sarvam khalu idam Brahma” Thus, Sri Aurobindo regards the ideal aim of The Life Divine in his epic Savitri as,

“The Spirit shall look out through Matter’s gaze

And Matter shall reveal through Spirit’s face

Then man and Superman shall be at one

And all the earth becomes a single life.”

 

Nishikant Patoa, Research Scholar, Assam University, Silchar

A STUDY OF ECONOMIC IDEAS OF GANDHI AND NEHRU

Indian history during the first half of the 20th century is inconceivable without acknowledging the dynamic role of Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. They stood apart from the rest of their contemporaries as the two leading figures of Indian Nationalism. They wanted to see India free from the foreign rule. They were complementary and supplementary to each other in many respects. Gandhi could not do without the support of the young, dynamic, highly educated new leader, while Nehru was in need of a wise teacher who thought in the traditional Indian way, having unique ability to organize the masses. They contributed immensely not only for the promotion of the cause of Indian Nationalism but were also deeply involved in evolving comprehensive models of social reconstruction and economic development to be taken up in the country, immediately after the attainment of independence. On the economic front, both Gandhi and Nehru stood for the establishment of a system which would free society from the curse of poverty and exploitation and provide equal opportunities to all its members. Both shared the same dream of classless and casteless society. However the two thinkers also had differences on a numbers of issues. The present paper seeks to explore the convergences and divergences between the economic philosophies of these two personalities.

Merina Islam, Assistant Professor in Philosophy, Cachar College, Silchar ,Assam

Relevance of Gandhian Concept of Non-Violence in Today’s World

Gandhi-He is a well known figure in the world. There are many philosophical thoughts in his writings and among them; the concept of “Non-violence” is worth mentioning. In this paper I will try to elaborate his concept of non-violence and also try to show its relevance in today’s world. In the world of corruption and injustice, how far his concept of non-violence is justified? How far his concept of non-violence is helpful in maintaining peace and harmony among us. These are the issues that will be discussed in paper.  And in the conclusion, I will try to show that there is very less applicability of Gandhian concept of non-violence in today’s world.

 

Muzahidur Rahman Khan, Research Scholar, Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur (UP)

     

Science, Biotechnology and Yoga: An Aurobindian Perspective

The development of society demands an increased public interest in the interplay between spirituality and science. However, scientists and professionals of different fields are usually either openly sceptical or do not know how to respond to this issue in the professional practice. The concepts of science and spirituality, closely linked in the past, seem to fall apart in separate and irreconcilable categories. For some professionals, spiritual concerns may impede scientific progress, creating an apparently unbridgeable gap. Simultaneously, scientists may feel isolated and overburdened with intractable human dilemmas where spirituality could have a role to play. Emerging literature is demonstrating a healthy interrelationship between religious belief and scientific practice when relating to the new quantic paradigms. Even more, if as Sri Aurobindo reminds us, spirituality is seen as the search for transcendent meaning, then science is the correlative that searches for transcendent meaning in the spatial and temporal reality. Yoga and biotechnology seem to be the pragmatic expressions of spirituality and science. Our proposal will analyze the role of yoga and its interpretation as a new kind of biotechnology in the light of Sri Aurobindo´s thought.

 

Olga Real-Najarro, Ph.D., Center for Asian Studies
Autonomous University of Nuevo León
México

 

Mario A. Rodríguez-Pérez,Center of Genomic Biotechnology
Instituto Politécnico Nacional , México

Tagore’s Philosophy on Humanism

Rabindranath Tagore was a great poet and lyricist as well as a prose writer, a dramatist, a painter, a performer, a social reformer, an educationist and what not. But the undertone of all his creations and activities is love for Man. He is a passionate Indian, but his nationalism transcendent into universalism, where one may find out a unique blending of the best of the East and that of the West. This paper is an humble attempt to get a glimpse of Tagore’s philosophy of humanism. On May 7, 1861, Rabindranath was born in an aristocratic, affluent and cultured family of Tagores at Jorasanko in Kolkata. This was the time when India, particularly Bengal was passing through a total cultural revolution known as the Renaissance. It opened the doors which had been closed for centuries. It was to search and cultivate new ideas, new thoughts and new approaches touching almost every aspect that makes human life beautiful and worth living. Jorasanko Thakurbari (Tagore’s House) was the hub of such cultural rejuvenation that fostered the basic values of rationalism, nationalism and humanism. Rabindranath from his very childhood because of both heredity and environment imbibed these values and inculcated them through his lifelong creations. Tagore’s song ‘jana gana mana adhinayaka’ (1911) invoking the same goal of a larger humanity was chosen as our national anthem by Gandhi and Nehru, and remains a symbol of modern India’s legacy of universal humanity. The Constitution of India upholds that legacy.

R.K.Behera, Reader, Department of Philosophy, Patkai Christian College (Autonomous), Nagaland.

Casteism, Social Security and Violation of Human Rights

“Slavery does not merely mean a legalised form of subjection. It means a state of society in which some men are forced to accept from others the purposes which control their conduct.”

-Dr.B.R.Ambedkar

The consciousness of social security comes to a man when he feels that he is getting his basic rights. Human Rights are related to those rights which are related to man’s life, freedom, equality and self-esteem, are established by Indian constitution or universal declaration of human rights and implemented by Indian judiciary system. In other words, “Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, whatever our nationality, place of residence, sex, national or ethnic origin, color, religion, language, or any other status.”1 We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. But we when come the present conditions of Indian society, it is painful to say we find lots of discrimination and violations of human rights is a common problem. In this paper it is an attempt is made to describe that casteism cause social insecurity and is a form of violation of human rights.

 

Dr. Desh Raj Sirswal, P.G.Govt. College for Girls, Sector-11, Chandigarh

Materialism in the Śāstravārtasamuccaya of Haribhadra Sūri

Direct sources for the study of classical Indian materialism (Lokāyata or Cārvāka) are extremely rare. We know that a basic text advocating materialism existed, the Bṛhaspatisūtra or Bārhaspatyasūtra of which only a few fragments remain. Indirect sources, however, are more numerous. We find them mainly in doxographies of Brahmanical, Buddhist or Jain origin. One of the most important of these is the Ṣaḍdarśanasamuccaya of the Jain author Haribhadra Sūri (8th C.E.) and its commentary, the Tarkarahasyadīpikā of Guṇaratna (Suali 1905). However, conspicuous in the list of indirect sources is the absence of the Śāstravārtasamuccaya composed by the same Jain author. This remarkable text has not yet been studied adequately. The Hindi translation of K.K. Dixit (1969, 2002) is only a paraphrase or, at the least, a free translation. This article presents an English translation of the basic text of Haribhadra Sūri along with the paraphrase (P) mentioned as well as the Ṭippaṇī (Ṭ) or gloss, both by Dixit. It is meant to be a preliminary study of a so far neglected source and to provide additional primary materials for the study of Indian materialism.

 

Frank Van Den Bossche , Ghent University , Department of Oriental Languages and Cultures, Blandijnberg 2 , 9000 Ghent , Belgium

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